El Tripitaka Koreana: un vasto tesoro de sabiduría budista en madera

El Tripitaka Koreana: un vasto tesoro de sabiduría budista en madera


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El Tripitaka Koreana es una colección de textos, leyes y tratados budistas creados originalmente durante el 11 th siglo por el reino coreano de Goryeo. El Tripitaka Koreana fue tallado en bloques de madera y se erige como la versión intacta más completa y antigua del canon budista en escritura Hanja, sin errores conocidos ni erratas. Durante las invasiones mongolas, la colección original fue destruida. Poco después, sin embargo, se creó un segundo conjunto de Tripitaka Koreana. Hacia finales del siglo XIV, las tablas de madera se trasladaron al templo de Haeinsa, donde se almacenan desde entonces. La importancia del Tripitaka Koreana, y el templo donde se guarda, ha sido reconocida tanto a nivel nacional como internacional. Además de ser un tesoro nacional de Corea, el Templo de Haeinsa es Patrimonio de la Humanidad por la UNESCO, mientras que el Tripitaka Koreana ha sido inscrito en el Registro de la Memoria del Mundo de la UNESCO.

Tripitaka Koreana: 81,258 "textos" budistas en madera

El Tripitaka Koreana también se conoce como Palman Daejanggyeong. La palabra Tripitaka en sánscrito significa "Tres cestas" y se refiere a las antiguas colecciones de escrituras budistas. Palman Daejanggyeong, que significa "Ochenta mil Tripitaka", es quizás un nombre más descriptivo, ya que esta colección de textos budistas consta de 81,258 "textos" en madera.

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La colección completa está dividida en más de 1.496 títulos y 6.568 volúmenes, y contiene un total de 52.330.152 caracteres Hanja. El Tripitaka Koreana no solo es la colección más completa de textos budistas en caracteres Hanja, sino que también es notablemente precisa, ya que no hay errores conocidos en toda la colección.

Debido al alto nivel de precisión del Tripitaka Koreana, las versiones japonesa, china y taiwanesa del Tripitaka se basan en esta antigua colección coreana.

Pilas de xilografías Tripitaka Koreana en el templo Haeinsa en Corea del Sur. ( shoenberg3 / Adobe Stock)

Otro aspecto sorprendente del Tripitaka Koreana radica en la consistencia del estilo de la caligrafía. El estilo es tan consistente que durante mucho tiempo se pensó que había sido obra de una sola persona. Hoy, sin embargo, existe un consenso entre los estudiosos de que hubo hasta 30 personas involucradas en la talla del Tripitaka Koreana.

Los propios bloques de madera también son dignos de mención. Estos estaban hechos de madera de abedul de las islas del sur de Corea, que primero fueron tratados para evitar que la madera se pudra. La madera se remojó inicialmente en agua de mar durante tres años, antes de cortarla en bloques. Después de eso, los bloques se hirvieron en agua salada, se colocaron a la sombra y se expusieron al viento durante otros tres años.

La siguiente etapa fue la talla de los bloques de madera. Sin embargo, esta no fue la etapa final, ya que los bloques de madera tallados se cubrieron con una laca venenosa para evitar que los insectos los dañen. Por último, los bloques de madera se enmarcaron con metal para evitar deformaciones.

Copia de un bloque de madera de Tripitaka Koreana. (CC BY-SA 3.0)

El budismo llegó a Corea desde China en el siglo IV d.C.

El budismo se introdujo en Corea desde China durante el siglo IV d.C. Durante el período Goryeo, es decir, del siglo X al XIV d.C., el budismo se convirtió en la religión nacional de Corea. Uno de los grandes logros de los gobernantes budistas de Goryeo fue la creación del Tripitaka Koreana.

Durante el siglo XI, Goryeo estuvo en guerra con los Khitans. Para invocar la protección divina del Buda contra los enemigos de su reino, el rey Goryeo encargó la Tripitaka Koreana. La talla de estos textos sagrados en bloques de madera comenzó en 1011 y finalmente se completó en 1087. Desafortunadamente, los bloques de madera originales fueron destruidos durante las invasiones mongoles de Corea, que comenzaron en 1231.

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Monjes budistas coreanos caminando en el templo de Haeinsa en los tiempos modernos. ( natmacstock / Adobe Stock)

En las décadas siguientes, los mongoles lanzaron varias campañas militares contra Goryeo. En el segundo año de la guerra, la capital de Goryeo se trasladó de Kaesong a la isla de Ganghwa, ya que esta última podía defenderse más fácilmente contra los mongoles. En 1236, el rey Gojong ordenó que se rehiciera el Tripitaka Koreana. Una vez más, las sagradas escrituras fueron grabadas con la esperanza de que Buda protegiera a Goryeo de los invasores extranjeros.

El segundo conjunto de Tripitaka Koreana tardó 16 años en tallar y finalmente se completó en 1251. No está claro dónde se guardó el Tripitaka Koreana en el siglo y medio que siguió. En 1398, sin embargo, los bloques de madera fueron trasladados por la dinastía Yi, la casa real del sucesor de Goryeo, Joseon, al templo de Haeinsa. El Tripitaka Koreana ha residido en ese templo hasta el día de hoy.

El exterior del edificio principal del Templo de Haeinsa, Corea del Sur. ( Dmitry Chulov / Adobe Stock)

Templo de Haeinsa: hogar de la "Segunda" Tripitaka Koreana

El nombre del templo de Haeinsa se ha traducido como "Reflejos del mar en calma". El templo está situado en el monte Gaya, en la parte sur de la península de Corea. El templo es anterior al Tripitaka Koreana, ya que fue construido en el año 802 d.C. durante el reinado de Aejang, el gobernante de Silla.

Según una leyenda, la esposa del rey padecía una extraña enfermedad y ninguno de los médicos reales pudo tratarla. Por lo tanto, el rey envió funcionarios a los cuatro rincones de su reino para buscar monjes que pudieran curar a la reina. En el lugar donde más tarde se construiría Haeinsa, dos monjes coreanos, Suneung e Ijeong, que habían regresado de China, establecieron una ermita. Cuando uno de los oficiales del rey llegó al lugar, vio un resplandor brillante que emanaba de los monjes y les pidió que regresaran al palacio con él.

Los monjes, sin embargo, rechazaron la solicitud del funcionario, pero le entregaron un carrete de hilo de cinco colores. Le dijeron que atara un extremo del hilo al dedo de la reina y el otro a un peral frente al palacio. El funcionario regresó al palacio e hizo lo que le indicaron los monjes. Mientras la reina recuperó su salud, el árbol se secó y murió. En agradecimiento a Suneung e Ijeong, el rey donó el sitio de Haeinsa a los monjes e hizo construir un templo budista allí.

Una historia alternativa sobre el origen del templo afirma que fue Suneung quien estableció el templo en Haeinsa después de alcanzar la iluminación en China. Aunque la reina también aparece en esta historia, no implica que ella estuviera enferma, ni fue curada milagrosamente por los monjes. En cambio, se dice que fue partidaria de los monjes budistas, luego de su conversión al budismo bajo la guía de Suneung. Tras la repentina muerte de Suneung, la construcción del templo continuó y fue completada por Ijeong.

El Tripitaka Koreana es una colección asombrosa de 81,258 escrituras budistas talladas en bloques de madera para imprimir que han vivido en el Templo de Haeinsa desde 1398 d.C. ( CC BY 2.0 )

La biblioteca Haeinsa o la biblioteca Tripitaka se construyó para durar

La Tripitaka Koreana se almacena en la biblioteca Janggyeong Panjeon o Haeinsa del templo. Esta biblioteca está ubicada en el punto más alto del complejo del templo, incluso más alto que la sala que alberga al Buda principal del templo. Como se mencionó anteriormente, los bloques de madera fueron tratados especialmente para preservarlos del deterioro. Además de esto, la biblioteca fue diseñada ingeniosamente para protegerlos aún más.

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El diseño de la biblioteca también fue funcional, ya que permitió acceder y almacenar fácilmente los bloques de madera. El diseño de la biblioteca proporciona ventilación natural y modula la temperatura y la humedad, contribuyendo así a la excelente conservación de Tripitaka Koreana durante más de 600 años. Por cierto, la biblioteca ha sobrevivido a siete incendios graves en templos, incluido uno en 1818, que quemó la mayor parte del complejo del templo.

Hay pocas dudas sobre la importancia del Tripitaka Koreana para el pueblo coreano. En 1962, esta invaluable colección de textos budistas fue designada como Tesoro Nacional de Corea del Sur. En 2007, la Tripitaka Koreana también se inscribió en el Registro de la Memoria del Mundo de la UNESCO. Asimismo, también se ha reconocido la importancia del Janggyeong Panjeon que alberga el Tripitaka Koreana.


Cientos de antiguas tumbas excavadas en la roca han sido descubiertas en Egipto

los Ministerio de Turismo y Antigüedades de Egipto han anunciado el descubrimiento de una colección distintiva de cientos de tumbas antiguas. Las 250 tumbas excavadas en la roca se encontraron en varios niveles de la cara de una montaña en la necrópolis de Al-Hamidiyah cerca de Sohag, en el sur de Egipto, en la Ribera Occidental del río Nilo. Esto eleva el total a más de 300 tumbas descubiertas en el área, que está ubicada cerca de las antiguas ciudades de Asuán y Abido.

Este es el último de una serie de nuevos e importantes descubrimientos arqueológicos egipcios. Poniendo este último descubrimiento en contexto, el uso del complejo funerario abarca más de 2.000 años de historia egipcia, desde el período del Imperio Antiguo, que incluyó al faraón Keops, el constructor de la Gran Pirámide de Giza, hasta la época de la muerte de Cleopatra en el año 30 a. C. , un evento que marcó el final de la dinastía ptolemaica.

Tumba excavada en la roca en la necrópolis de Al-Hamidiyah, cerca de Sohag. (Ministerio de Antigüedades de Egipto)


La datación de los Tripitakas no está clara. Max Muller afirma que los textos probablemente fueron compuestos en el siglo III a. C., pero transmitidos oralmente de generación en generación al igual que los Vedas y los primeros Upanishads. [7] La ​​primera versión, sugiere Muller, muy probablemente se redujo a escritura en el siglo I aC (casi 500 años después de la época de Buda). [7]

Según el historiador tibetano Bu-ston, afirma Warder, alrededor del siglo I d.C. o antes, había dieciocho escuelas de budismo y sus Tripitakas estaban escritas para entonces. [8] Sin embargo, a excepción de una versión que ha sobrevivido en su totalidad, y otras de las cuales partes han sobrevivido, todos estos textos se han perdido en la historia o aún no se han encontrado. [8] La evidencia histórica conservada en Sri Lanka sugiere que un Tripitaka completo fue escrito allí en el siglo I aC. [8] Estos textos fueron escritos en cuatro idiomas indoeuropeos relacionados del sur de Asia: sánscrito, pali, paisaci y prakrit, en algún momento entre el siglo I a. C. y el siglo VII d. C. [8] Algunos de estos fueron traducidos a idiomas de Asia oriental como el chino, el tibetano y el mongol por antiguos eruditos visitantes, que aunque son vastos, están incompletos. [9]

Wu y Chia afirman que la evidencia emergente, aunque incierta, sugiere que los primeros textos budistas escritos del Tripitaka pueden haber llegado a China desde la India en el siglo I a.C. [10]


El mundo tiembla, pero el Khan no

Después de mucho debate, Timur decidió seguir adelante y prepararse para una invasión masiva. Mientras preparaba sus fuerzas, envió al príncipe Pir Mohammed Jahangir por delante para colocar bajo asedio la ciudad santa de Multan (ubicada en el actual Pakistán).

Multan es famoso por su gran cantidad de santuarios sufíes, incluida la única tumba rectangular de Shah Gardez que data de la década de 1150 y está cubierta con azulejos esmaltados azules típicos de Multan. (Junaidahmadj /CC BY-SA 3.0)

Mientras esto sucedía, Timur ordenó que se reunieran noventa mil soldados. Para asegurarse de que todos estuvieran a bordo, Timur pidió un qurultay, que es una reunión con todos los príncipes, jefes y otros funcionarios para informarles cuáles eran sus intenciones.

Aunque la verdadera fe se observa en muchos lugares de la India, la mayor parte del Reino está habitada por idólatras. Los sultanes de Delhi se han mostrado débiles en su defensa de la fe. Los gobernantes musulmanes se contentan con la recaudación de tributos de estos infieles. El Corán dice que la máxima dignidad que puede alcanzar un hombre es hacer la guerra a los enemigos de nuestra religión. Mahoma el Profeta aconsejó igualmente. Un guerrero musulmán así asesinado adquiere un mérito que lo traslada de inmediato al Paraíso.

Timur también dejó en claro que deberían temerle a él y a su ejército porque "la mayor parte de Asia está bajo nuestro dominio, y el mundo tiembla ante el menor movimiento que hacemos". Timur también vio el destino de su lado y creyó que había sido bendecido con oportunidades favorables. Debido a esto, sus ejércitos cabalgaron “hacia el sur, no hacia el este. La India a través de sus desórdenes nos ha abierto sus puertas ”.

Timur envió una carta dirigida a Sarang Khan de Dipalpur con un posible trato:

Si los gobernantes de Indostán vienen ante mí con tributo, no interferiré con sus vidas, propiedades o reinos, pero si son negligentes al ofrecer obediencia y sumisión, pondré mi fuerza para la conquista de los reinos de la India. En todo caso, si ponen algún valor en sus vidas, propiedades y reputación, me pagarán un tributo anual y, si no, se enterarán de mi llegada con mis poderosos ejércitos. Despedida.

Es difícil llevarse un imperio al pecho, como una novia, sin problemas y dificultades y el choque de espadas. El deseo de tu príncipe es apoderarse de este reino con sus ricas ganancias. Bueno, que nos lo arrebate por la fuerza de las armas si puede. Tengo numerosos ejércitos y formidables elefantes, y estoy bastante preparado para la guerra.


Especies de plantas culturalmente significativas de los pueblos del pueblo

El último estudio se centró en lugares ricos en artefactos que en algún momento habían sido ocupados por los pueblos de la meseta de Colorado, incluidos los Hopi, Zuni, Utes y Navajo (Diné).

Los científicos estaban interesados ​​principalmente en buscar especies de plantas de los pueblos Pueblo culturalmente significativas que crecen en el área. Las poblaciones de Puebloan en la región estaban en su punto máximo hace 1.000 años, y estas especies se habrían utilizado en ese entonces y en años posteriores para alimentos, medicinas y con fines ceremoniales o religiosos.

En total, los investigadores identificaron y recolectaron muestras de más de 117 especies de plantas que sabían que tenían algún significado para los residentes indígenas antiguos y modernos relacionados con los pueblos Pueblo. Todas estas especies se encontraron en las cercanías de varios sitios arqueológicos de Puebloan, y se revisaron otros lugares en el área para ver si se podían encontrar los mismos tipos de plantas fuera de esos sitios.

La distribución de estas especies vegetales fue sorprendente y reveladora. Como explicaron los científicos en su informe del 17 de mayo en el procedimientos de la Academia Nacional de Ciencias (PNAS), la ecología vegetal del paisaje parecía haber sido moldeada por planificación intencional.

Se encontraron muchas especies de plantas creciendo casi exclusivamente cerca de los sitios arqueológicos de Puebloan, donde los grupos nativos se habían asentado en poblaciones grandes o pequeñas. En lugares alejados de los asentamientos de los pueblos, estas plantas en particular rara vez se encontraban. Cerca de los sitios arqueológicos más grandes y complejos, los investigadores encontraron una mayor cantidad de diferentes especies culturalmente importantes, en comparación con sitios más pequeños que tenían menos diversidad de plantas.

"Las plantas no estaban allí al azar", explicó Pavlik en un comunicado de prensa de la Universidad de Utah. "La gente traía propágulos [semillas o brotes] de la especie".

Los pueblos pueblo de la meseta de Colorado habían dejado una huella clara de su presencia. Excepto en este caso, los artefactos descubiertos fueron plantas, en lugar de las producciones culturales habituales como cerámica, herramientas o armas.

“Este es uno de los raros momentos en la literatura arqueológica donde la gente invirtió en especies nativas y las trajo a sus viviendas”, continuó Pavlik. "Indica este nivel más alto de manipulación del paisaje, lo que llamamos 'un legado ecológico' de la ocupación humana pasada".

En general, hubo al menos 31 especies que parecían haber sido plantadas o cultivadas intencionalmente en áreas donde vivían los pueblos. Puede que haya habido más, pero algunas de las especies de plantas comunes en los sitios arqueológicos también lo eran en otras áreas, por lo que es imposible saber si se habían plantado intencionalmente o se habían propagado allí de forma natural.

Las sociedades sostenibles y ecológicamente sabias como los pueblos de Pueblo creadas hace más de 1000 años son útiles hoy para comprender estas sociedades, la nuestra y dónde buscar otros artefactos. ( whisky de soda / Adobe Stock)


El Tripitaka Koreana: Un vasto tesoro de sabiduría budista en madera - Historia

Bombay, Maharashtra (India) Frente a la elección contradictoria de preservar y popularizar las cuevas de Ajanta y Ellora de 2.200 años de antigüedad con su tesoro de pinturas, la pareja de arquitectos de Mumbai, Trilochan y Anju Chhaya, decidieron hacer ambas cosas.

A cinco kilómetros del magnífico monumento del Patrimonio Mundial, construido a lo largo de 800 años a partir del 200 a. C. a 600 d.C. en las rocas austeras cerca de Aurangabad, Chhaya y Chhaya Design Consultants - decidieron crear un 'preludio' a las cuevas.

Piense en ello como un avance de una gran película épica. Debería ser tentador sin revelar nada. Nuestro desafío ha sido crear una experiencia que sea auténtica, informativa y emocionante para un número cada vez mayor de turistas que visitan las cuevas de Ajanta y Ellora '', dijo Trilochan Chhaya a IANS en una entrevista.

Las autoridades observaban con creciente preocupación la constante erosión de las cuevas a medida que aumentaba el tráfico de turistas en los últimos 50 años. Las cuevas habían permanecido prácticamente olvidadas durante 1.200 años hasta que una partida de caza británica las encontró por casualidad en 1819.

Construidas cincelando a través de la enorme roca dura en forma de herradura en el río Waghure, las 30 cuevas fueron lugares de descanso antiguos para los monjes budistas que atravesaban a lo largo y ancho del país para propagar la filosofía budista.

Las cuevas consisten en 'viharas' - y 'chaityas' - y están llenas de impresionantes pinturas de estilo budista que resumen los ciclos de vida de Gautam Buddha conocidos como Jataka Tales.

“Cuando miramos las cuevas de Ajanta y Ellora, realmente estamos viendo la evolución de casi 1,000 años en términos de cultura. En estas pinturas se han representado pinturas, joyas, disfraces, rituales culinarios, moda. Como arquitecto, mi mayor desafío fue ofrecer a los visitantes una descripción completa de este gran espectáculo sin realmente intentar impresionarlos con mi diseño. Abordé el proyecto con mucha humildad ”, dijo.

El proyecto del que habla Trilochan Chhaya es un esfuerzo conjunto del Servicio Arqueológico de India, el gobierno indio, el ministerio de turismo, Maharashtra Tourism Development Corp -, Tata Consultancy Services - y el Banco de Japón para la Cooperación Internacional -.

El proyecto de más de 1.000 millones de rupias tiene como objetivo amortiguar y minimizar significativamente el impacto del turismo en el patrimonio de la UNESCO sin controlar de ninguna manera la afluencia de turistas. Para eliminar una gran afluencia de autobuses contaminantes y otros vehículos privados, los arquitectos han creado un "preludio" a las cuevas.

Sin embargo, antes de embarcarse en el preludio, las autoridades se dedicaron a dotar de infraestructura dentro y alrededor de las cuevas con nuevas carreteras, líneas eléctricas, forestación y transporte.

Una estructura similar a una galaxia espiral helicoidal de un solo brazo ahora está tomando forma lejos de las cuevas donde los diseñadores planean ofrecer una experiencia multimedia construida alrededor de réplicas de cuatro cuevas. Las historias, extraídas de la historia del monumento, se narrarán utilizando técnicas multimedia.

Trilochan Chhaya dijo que se ha cuidado de que su equipo no intente darse el gusto de "lucirse" y aborda todo el proyecto con "humildad y un sentido de rendir homenaje a los antiguos maestros".

Las pinturas y tallas de las cuevas se están reproduciendo y colocando en el próximo edificio con el propósito específico de "saciar" la curiosidad de las personas antes de que lleguen al sitio del patrimonio real.

Creemos que este enfoque ayudará a preservar las obras maestras originales. Además, también estamos creando una especie de estudio de escultor que venderá réplicas de las estructuras y pinturas de la cueva. Esto también ayudará a desviar la atención no deseada hacia el monumento real ”, dijo.

Toda la experiencia en el nuevo edificio comenzará en el Centro de Orientación, que preparará a los turistas sobre qué esperar.

Ubicado bajo una cúpula de treinta metros que descansa sobre un cilindro, el centro albergará un proyector de ciclorama que puede crear una poderosa experiencia audiovisual. Luego está la réplica de las cuevas con réplicas de las famosas pinturas. El tercer elemento será el centro multimedia incrustado entre las réplicas de la cueva.

Mientras que el Centro de Visitantes de Ajanta se concentra en las pinturas, la versión de Ellora se enfoca en la estructura real de la cueva. Juntos ofrecen una visión completa de siglos de evolución cultural. Ambos complejos contarán con una serie de cortometrajes que se reproducirán en bucle, ofreciendo a los visitantes una introducción continua a la historia de lo que están a punto de ingresar.

Los diseñadores se han asegurado de incorporar las cuatro características famosas de la región, como los saris Paithani, el lino Himru, el trabajo Bidri en metal negro y el gres como parte de las experiencias. Los artesanos locales fabricarán estos productos en el sitio.

A diferencia de algunos de los sitios turísticos más populares, como el Taj Mahal, lo único de las cuevas de Ajanta y Ellora es que ofrecen, a través de esculturas y pinturas, una visión espectacular de la vida en la India durante ocho siglos. En esa medida, las cuevas no tienen rival.

Como parte de su plan para mantener la coherencia temática, la empresa de diseño CCDC, que también ha sido contratada por la Autoridad Aeroportuaria de la India y el Ministerio de Aviación Civil, ha creado un nuevo diseño moderno para el nuevo aeropuerto de Aurangabad. Se espera que entre en funcionamiento en un año y medio.

“La idea es ofrecer a cualquiera que venga a Aurangabad la sensación de haber entrado en un lugar de extraordinaria historia desde el aeropuerto. Es una fusión del caparazón moderno con los interiores tradicionales que representan una cara cambiante y modernizadora de la ciudad '', dijo Anju Chhaya.

El Centro de visitantes de Ajanta y Ellora tiene el potencial de emerger como un modelo para la preservación de un gran número de sitios patrimoniales no solo en la India sino también en todo el mundo.


El Tripitaka Koreana: Un vasto tesoro de sabiduría budista en madera - Historia

Por Manjarie PEIRIS, Daily News (Sri Lanka), miércoles 14 de enero de 2009

Fue una mañana tranquila y soleada en la capital de Kenia. Embajador Ram Sharada y Hon. Njeru Kathangu, ex miembro del Parlamento de Kenia, recibe al Venerable Bhante Wimala en la basílica de St. Johns en el centro de Nairobi. Lo acompañaron al Centro de Paz ubicado a pocas cuadras de la iglesia. En una ceremonia sencilla e íntima, otorgaron al venerable Bhante Y. Wimala un certificado de Embajador de la Paz, ofrecido por la Federación para la Paz Universal, Federación Internacional e Interreligiosa para la Paz Mundial.

Los destinatarios del Premio de la Paz son elegidos cuidadosamente en reconocimiento a sus servicios como líderes que representan la diversidad religiosa, racial y étnica de la familia humana, así como todas las disciplinas del esfuerzo humano. Se basan en el terreno común de principios compartidos y están comprometidos con el camino de promover la reconciliación, superar las barreras y construir la paz.

"Me sorprendió gratamente ver la emoción y el entusiasmo de todos los que se reunieron allí. Sentí que sus palabras y gestos salían de su corazón con un entusiasmo genuino. Fue un gran momento para presenciar tanto aprecio por el trabajo que hago con tan mucha dedicación y entusiasmo ". Dijo Bhante Wimala.

Ven. Mwalagho Kililo, Secretario General de la Federación para la Paz Universal - Región de África, Excmo. Njeru Kathangu, ex miembro del Parlamento de Kenia, el embajador Ram Sharada, Rose Kegwiria de la Federación Juvenil por la Paz Mundial y Rangala Fredrick, directora adjunta del Festival de la Paz de Kenia, estuvieron entre los participantes en esta ceremonia.

Los Embajadores para la Paz deben ejemplificar el ideal de vivir por el bien de los demás al tiempo que promueven los valores morales universales junto con una vida familiar sólida. Deben ayudar a fortalecer la cooperación interreligiosa, la armonía internacional y la renovación de las Naciones Unidas, la creación de medios de comunicación responsables y el establecimiento de una cultura mundial de paz.

Deben superar las barreras raciales, nacionales y religiosas y contribuir al cumplimiento de la esperanza de todas las edades: un mundo unificado de paz en el que se armonicen las dimensiones espirituales y materiales de la vida.

Los Embajadores para la Paz sirven como miembros en los consejos de paz nacionales, regionales y globales que promueven y salvaguardan la paz mundial.

Contribuyen al desarrollo de una amplia alianza estratégica de asociaciones entre individuos, instituciones educativas, organizaciones, religiones, corporaciones, medios de comunicación y gobiernos.

Bhante Wimala es el autor de 'Lecciones del loto - Enseñanzas espirituales prácticas de un monje budista itinerante' y 'Poemas del despertar'. La página web de Bhante Wimala es www.bhantewimala.com.

Bhante Wimala también fue galardonado con el Premio de la Paz Global en los EE. UU. El año pasado por el Centro de Paz en los EE. UU. y el Consejo de Iglesias Cristianas. Bhante Wimala ha sido un monje budista durante 36 años y es conocido en todo el mundo como un maestro espiritual y humanitario. Es el Monje Jefe y Director Espiritual del Centro Budista Theravada, Nairobi, Kenia.

También es el fundador y maestro espiritual del Centro de Meditación Budista e-Samadhi en Tupadly (Praga) República Checa, Fundador del Centro Budista Lotus. Desde 1986, Bhante Wimala ha sido el presidente y director espiritual de Triple Gem Society, el Centro de Evaluación Consciente, en Princeton, Nueva Jersey, EE. UU. También es el Director Fundador y Asesor Espiritual de los Ministerios de Prisiones que sirven a muchas prisiones estatales en los EE. UU.

Bhante Wimala ha sido el Jefe Sanghanayake de Estados Unidos y Canadá desde 1994. En 1994, fue nombrado Sanghanayake por el Consejo de Monjes de Samastha Amerapura Sangha Sabha de Sri Lanka.


El Tripitaka Koreana: Un vasto tesoro de sabiduría budista en madera - Historia

La visión de paz y supervivencia de Samdech Maha Ghosananda se extendió más allá de las fronteras de su tierra natal y se extendió a las comunidades de Nueva Inglaterra.

Ghosananda, un arquitecto del renacimiento del budismo en Camboya y un líder espiritual cuya influencia se sintió en toda esta área, especialmente en Lowell, murió el 12 de marzo en el Hospital Cooley Dickinson en Northampton. Tenía entre 70 y 80 años.

Había estado viviendo con monjes budistas en Leverett y Providence.

A menudo considerado como el Gandhi de Camboya, Ghosananda fue uno de los pocos monjes de alto rango que sobrevivió al sangriento régimen de cuatro años de Pol Pot. Después de perder a toda su familia, incluidos 16 hermanos, Ghosananda emergió como un reformador que buscaba revitalizar a la población de refugiados camboyanos a través de la compasión y el perdón. Estableció más de 50 templos budistas en América del Norte y Europa. Varios de ellos se encuentran en Nueva Inglaterra, incluido el Templo Triratanaram en North Chelmsford, donde se llevaría a cabo su funeral este fin de semana.

"Tenía un fuerte sentido del equilibrio y la armonía. Era un símbolo de paz e inspiración para la comunidad camboyana en Lowell", dijo el Venerable Natha-Pandito Rithipol del Templo Triratanaram.

Ghosananda nació, probablemente en la década de 1920, en la provincia de Takeo, Camboya, donde sirvió como el niño del templo local. Bajo la dirección del ex patriarca supremo Samdech Prah Sangha Raja Chuon Noth, Ghosananda se convirtió en monje budista cuando era adolescente. Obtuvo un doctorado en estudios budistas de la Universidad Budista de Nalanda en Bihar, India, donde más tarde enseñó. Nichidatsu Fujii, fundador de la secta budista japonesa Nipponzan Myohoji, lo introdujo en las prácticas del activismo no violento. En 1965 estudió el compromiso social contemplativo con Bhikkhu Buddhadasa. Para concluir su retiro, estudió meditación con Ajahn Dhammadaro y adquirió fluidez en más de 10 idiomas.

Vivió en el exilio durante el reinado de Pol Pot, que denunció el budismo y provocó la muerte de todos menos 3.000 de los 60.000 monjes budistas de Camboya. Al regresar en 1978 después de la caída del Khmer Rouge de Pol Pot, Ghosananda invocó la enseñanza de Buda de que "el odio nunca puede apaciguarse con el odio ... solo puede apaciguarse con el amor", para ayudar a los camboyanos a recuperar sus vidas. Con el apoyo de activistas comunitarios y organismos internacionales como las Naciones Unidas, Ghosananda inició varios programas de ayuda humanitaria esenciales para la restauración de Camboya. Enseñó meditación y formó caminatas por la paz, como el Dhammayietra, que continúa en Camboya hoy. Fue amigo personal del Dalai Lama y del Papa Juan Pablo II.

Reconociendo la importancia de las comunidades camboyanas en todo el mundo, Ghosananda transformó sus sueños de paz en un esfuerzo internacional. Se mudó a los Estados Unidos a fines de la década de 1980 por invitación de una orden budista en Leverett. En 1988, los monjes de Camboya lo eligieron su patriarca supremo.

Durante las últimas dos décadas, Ghosananda estuvo activo en la comunidad camboyana de Lowell, que es una de las más grandes del país. Dirigió el primer Festival del Agua del Sudeste Asiático en los Estados Unidos, que tuvo lugar en Lowell en 1997. Fue un visitante frecuente de Lowell, donde dirigió sesiones de meditación y oración en los templos locales. Llamó al templo budista en North Chelmsford, así como a muchos otros en Nueva Inglaterra.

Quienes lo conocieron elogiaron su devoción por la unidad camboyana en Massachusetts.

"Era un rostro familiar para muchos y un líder fuerte en nuestra comunidad. Tenía una gran presencia y buscaba la paz dondequiera que iba", dijo Rithipol.

Ghosananda fue nominado varias veces para el Premio Nobel de la Paz y fue galardonado con el Premio Niwano de la Paz 1998 en Japón y el Premio Rafto de Derechos Humanos 1992 en Noruega. Demostró su firme defensa del amor, la paz y el perdón a través de su propio ejemplo no violento y a través de su lema: "Nuestro viaje por la paz comienza hoy y todos los días. Cada paso es una oración, cada paso es una meditación, cada paso construirá un puente."


Contenido

Llegada y difusión del budismo Editar

Cuando el budismo se introdujo originalmente en Corea desde el ex Qin en 372, [7] aproximadamente 800 años después de la muerte del Buda histórico, el chamanismo era la religión indígena. El Samguk yusa y Samguk sagi registran los siguientes 3 monjes que estuvieron entre los primeros en traer la enseñanza budista, o Dharma, a Corea en el siglo IV durante el período de los Tres Reinos: Malananta - un monje budista indio que vino del área de Serindian en el sur de China Eastern Jin Dynasty and brought Buddhism to the King Baekje of Baekje in the southern Korean peninsula in 384 CE, Sundo - a monk from northern Chinese state Former Qin brought Buddhism to Goguryeo in northern Korea in 372 CE, and Ado - a monk who brought Buddhism to Silla in central Korea. [8] [9] As Buddhism was not seen to conflict with the rites of nature worship, it was allowed by adherents of Shamanism to be blended into their religion. Thus, the mountains that were believed by shamanists to be the residence of spirits in pre-Buddhist times later became the sites of Buddhist temples.

Though it initially enjoyed wide acceptance, even being supported as the state ideology during the Goryeo (918-1392 CE) period, Buddhism in Korea suffered extreme repression during the Joseon (1392-1897 CE) era, which lasted over five hundred years. During this period, Neo-Confucianism overcame the prior dominance of Buddhism.

Only after Buddhist monks helped repel the Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–98) did the persecution of Buddhists stop. Buddhism in Korea remained subdued until the end of the Joseon period, when its position was strengthened somewhat by the colonial period, which lasted from 1910 to 1945. However, these Buddhist monks did not only put an end to Japanese rule in 1945, but they also asserted their specific and separate religious identity by reforming their traditions and practices. They laid the foundation for many Buddhist societies, and the younger generation of monks came up with the ideology of Mingung Pulgyo, or "Buddhism for the people." The importance of this ideology is that it was coined by the monks who focused on common men's daily issues. [10] After World War II, the Seon school of Korean Buddhism once again gained acceptance.

Extent and syncretic impact of Buddhism Edit

A 2005 government survey indicated that about a quarter of South Koreans identified as Buddhist. [11] However, the actual number of Buddhists in South Korea is ambiguous as there is no exact or exclusive criterion by which Buddhists can be identified, unlike the Christian population. With Buddhism's incorporation into traditional Korean culture, it is now considered a philosophy and cultural background rather than a formal religion. As a result, many people outside of the practicing population are deeply influenced by these traditions. Thus, when counting secular believers or those influenced by the faith while not following other religions, the number of Buddhists in South Korea is considered to be much larger. [12] Similarly, in officially atheist North Korea, while Buddhists officially account for 4.5% of the population, a much larger number (over 70%) of the population are influenced by Buddhist philosophies and customs. [13] [14]

When Buddhism was introduced to Korea in the 4th century CE, the Korean peninsula was politically subdivided into Three Kingdoms of Korea]: Goguryeo in the north (which included territory currently in Russia and China), Baekje in the southwest, and Silla in the southeast. There is concrete evidence of an earlier introduction of Buddhism than traditionally believed. A mid-4th century tomb, unearthed near Pyongyang, is found to incorporate Buddhist motifs in its ceiling decoration.

Korean Buddhist monks traveled to China or India in order to study Buddhism in the late Three Kingdoms Period, especially in the 6th century. In 526, the monk Gyeomik (謙益) from Baekje traveled via the southern sea route to India to learn Sanskrit and study the Vinaya. The monk Paya (波若 562–613?) from Goguryeo is said to have studied under the Tiantai master Zhiyi. Other Korean monks of the period brought back numerous scriptures from abroad and conducted missionary activity throughout Korea.

Several schools of thought developed in Korea during these early times:

  • los Samlon (三論宗) or East Asian Mādhyamaka school focused on Mādhyamaka doctrine
  • los Gyeyul (戒律宗, or Vinaya in Sanskrit) school was mainly concerned with the study and implementation of śīla or "moral discipline"
  • los Yeolban (涅槃宗, or Nirvāna in Sanskrit) school based in the themes of the Mahāyāna Mahāparinirvāṇa Sūtra
  • los Wonyung (圓融宗, or Yuanrong in Chinese) school formed toward the end of the Three Kingdoms Period. This school lead to the actualization of the metaphysics of interpenetration as found in the Avatamsaka Sutra and was considered the premier school, especially among the educated aristocracy.
  • los Hwaeom (華嚴宗 or Huayan school) was the longest lasting of the "imported" schools. It had strong ties with the Beopseong (法性宗), an indigenous Korean school of thought.

The date of the first mission from Korea to Japan is unclear, but it is reported that a second detachment of scholars was sent to Japan upon invitation by the Japanese rulers in 577. The strong Korean influence on the development of Buddhism in Japan continued through the Unified Silla period. It was not until the 8th century that independent study by Japanese monks began in significant numbers.

Goguryeo Edit

In 372, the monk Sundo (順道, pinyin: Shùndào) was sent by Fu Jian (337–385) (苻堅) of Former Qin to the court of the King Sosurim of Goguryeo. He brought texts and statues (possibly of Maitreya, who was popular in Buddhism in Central Asia), and the Goguryeo royalty and their subjects quickly accepted his teachings. [15] Buddhism in China was in a rudimentary form, consisting of the law of cause and effect and the search for happiness. This had much in common with the predominant Shamanism, which likely led to the quick assimilation of Buddhism by the people of Goguryeo.

Early Buddhism in Silla developed under the influence of Goguryeo. Some monks from Goguryeo came to Silla and preached among the people, making a few converts. In 551, Hyeryang (惠亮), a Goguryeo monk was appointed the first National Patriarch of Silla. He first presided over the "Hundred-Seat Dharma Assembly" and the "Dharma of Eight Prohibitions".

Baekje Edit

In 384, the Gandharan monk Marananta arrived in Baekje and the royal family received the strain of Buddhism that he brought. King Asin of Baekje proclaimed, "people should believe in Buddhism and seek happiness." In 526, the Baekje monk Gyeomik (겸익, 謙益) traveled directly to Central India and came back with a collection of Vinaya texts, accompanied by the Indian monk Paedalta (Sanskrit: Vedatta). After returning to Baekje, Gyeomik translated the Buddhist scriptures in Sanskrit into seventy-two volumes. The Gyeyul school in Baekje was established by Gyeomik about a century earlier than its counterpart in China. As a result of his work, he is regarded as the father of Vinaya studies in Korea. [15]

Silla Edit

Buddhism did not enter the kingdom of Silla until the 5th century. The common people were first attracted to Buddhism here, but there was resistance among the aristocrats. In 527, however, a prominent court official named Ichadon presented himself to King Beopheung of Silla and announced he had become Buddhist. The king had him beheaded, but when the executioner cut off his head, it is said that milk poured out instead of blood. Paintings of this are in the temple at Haeinsa and a stone monument honoring his martyrdom is in the National Museum of Kyongju.

During the reign of the next king, Jinheung of Silla, the growth of Buddhism was encouraged and eventually recognized as the national religion of Silla. Selected young men were physically and spiritually trained at Hwarangdo according to Buddhist principles regarding one's ability to defend the kingdom. King Jinheung later became a monk himself.

The monk Jajang (慈藏) is credited with having been a major force in the adoption of Buddhism as a national religion. Jajang is also known for his participation in the founding of the Korean monastic sangha.

Another great scholar to emerge from the Silla Period was Wonhyo. He renounced his religious life to better serve the people and even married a princess for a short time, with whom he had a son. He wrote many treatises and his philosophy centered on the unity and interrelatedness of all things. He set off to China to study Buddhism with a close friend, Uisang, but only made it part of the way there. According to legend, Wonhyo awoke one night very thirsty. He found a container with cool water, which he drank before returning to sleep. The next morning he saw that the container from which he had drunk was a human skull and he realized that enlightenment depended on the mind. He saw no reason to continue to China, so he returned home. Uisang continued to China and after studying for ten years, offered a poem to his master in the shape of a seal that geometrically represents infinity. The poem contained the essence of the Avatamsaka Sutra.

Buddhism was so successful during this period that many kings converted and several cities were renamed after famous places during the time of the Buddha.

Unified Silla (668–935) Edit

In 668, the kingdom of Silla succeeded in unifying the whole Korean peninsula, giving rise to a period of political stability that lasted for about one hundred years under Unified Silla. This led to a high point in scholarly studies of Buddhism in Korea. The most popular areas of study were Wonyung, Yusik (Ch. 唯識 Weishi) or East Asian Yogācāra, Jeongto or Pure Land Buddhism, and the indigenous Korean Beopseong ("Dharma-nature school").

Wonhyo taught the Pure Land practice of yeombul, which would become very popular amongst both scholars and laypeople, and has had a lasting influence on Buddhist thought in Korea. His work, which attempts a synthesis of the seemingly divergent strands of Indian and Chinese Buddhist doctrines, makes use of the Essence-Function (體用 che-yong) framework, which was popular in native East Asian philosophical schools. His work was instrumental in the development of the dominant school of Korean Buddhist thought, known variously as Beopseong, Haedong (海東, "Korean") and later as Jungdo (中道, "Middle Way")

Wonhyo's friend Uisang (義湘) went to Chang'an, where he studied under Huayan patriarchs Zhiyan (智儼 600–668) and Fazang (法藏 643–712). When he returned after twenty years, his work contributed to Hwaeom Buddhism and became the predominant doctrinal influence on Korean Buddhism together with Wonhyo's tongbulgyo thought. Hwaeom principles were deeply assimilated into the Korean meditation-based Seon school, where they made a profound effect on its basic attitudes.

Influences from Silla Buddhism in general, and from these two philosophers in particular crept backwards into Chinese Buddhism. Wonhyo's commentaries were very important in shaping the thought of the preeminent Chinese Buddhist philosopher Fazang, and Woncheuk's commentary on the Saṃdhinirmocana-sūtra had a strong influence in Tibetan Buddhism.

The intellectual developments of Silla Buddhism brought with them significant cultural achievements in many areas, including painting, literature, sculpture, and architecture. During this period, many large and beautiful temples were built. Two crowning achievements were the temple Bulguksa and the cave-retreat of Seokguram (石窟庵). Bulguksa was famous for its jeweled pagodas, while Seokguram was known for the beauty of its stone sculpture.

Balhae (698–926) Edit

Buddhism also flourished in the northern Korean Kingdom of Balhae, established after the fall of Goguryeo, as the state religion. The remains of ten Buddhist temples have been found in the remains of the capital of Balhae, Sanggyeong, together with such Buddhist artifacts as Buddha statuettes and stone lanterns, which suggests that Buddhism played a predominant role in the life of the Balhae people. The Balhae tomb Majeokdal in Sinpo, South Hamgyong Province, are associated with pagodas and temples: This also indicates that Buddhism had a strong influence over the funerary rituals in Balhae.

After the fall of Balhae, sixty monks from Balhae including the monk Jaeung (載雄) fled together to the newly founded kingdom of Goryeo (918-1392).

Seon Edit

A new epoch in Korean Buddhism began during the latter Silla with the birth of schools of Korean Seon. In China, the movement toward a meditation-based practice, which came to be known as Chan Buddhism, had begun during the sixth and seventh centuries, and it was not long before the influence of the new meditational school reached Korea, where it was known as Seon. The term is more widely known in the West in its Japanese variant, Zen. Tension developed between the new meditational schools and the pre-existing academically oriented schools, which were described by the term gyo, meaning "learning" or "study."

Kim Gyo-gak (金喬覺 630–729), a prince who became a monastic, came to the region of Anhui to Mount Jiuhua in China. Many Chinese Buddhists believe he was indeed the transformation body of Kṣitigarbha. Two uncles sent by his mother and wife to call him back also became monastics there. His well-preserved, dehydrated body is seen at the monastery he built on Mount Jiuhua today. The two uncles, being officials before becoming monastics, found it difficult to abstain from wine and meat, and so practiced in another place on the mount. People built the palace of the two saints (二聖殿) in their practice place to memorialize them. Many Buddhists visit there.

Beomnang (法朗 fl. 632–646), said to be a student of the Chinese master Daoxin (道信 580–651), is generally credited with the initial transmission of Chan into Korea. It was popularized by Sinhaeng (神行 704–779) in the latter part of the eighth century and by Doui (道義 died 825) at the beginning of the ninth century. From then on, many Koreans studied Chan in China, and upon their return established their own schools at various mountain monasteries with their leading disciples. Initially, the number of these schools was fixed at nine, and Korean Seon was then termed the "nine mountain schools" (九山 or gusan). Eight of these were of the Mazu Daoyi (馬祖道一 709–788) lineage, as they were established through connection with either him or one of his eminent disciples. The one exception was the Sumi-san school founded by Ieom (利嚴 869–936), which had developed from the Caodong school (曹洞). [ cita necesaria ]

Rise of the Seon Edit

As Buddhism in medieval Korea evolved, it served to legitimize the state. [16] [17]

Initially, the new Seon schools were regarded by the established doctrinal schools as radical and dangerous upstarts. Thus, the early founders of the various "nine mountain" monasteries met with considerable resistance, repressed by the long influence in court of the Gyo schools. The struggles which ensued continued for most of the Goryeo period, but gradually the Seon argument for the possession of the true transmission of enlightenment gained the upper hand. The position that was generally adopted in the later Seon schools, due in large part to the efforts of Jinul (知訥 1158–1210), did not claim clear superiority of Seon meditational methods, but rather declared the intrinsic unity and similarities of the Seon and Gyo viewpoints.

Although all these schools are mentioned in historical records, toward the end of the dynasty, Seon became dominant in its effect on the government and society, as well as the production of noteworthy scholars and adepts. During the Goryeo period, Seon thoroughly became a "religion of the state," receiving extensive support and privileges through connections with the ruling family and powerful members of the court.

Hwaeom (Huayan) and Seon Edit

Although most of the scholastic schools waned in activity and influence during this period of Seon's growth, the Hwaeom school continued to be a lively source of scholarship well into the Goryeo, much of it continuing the legacy of Uisang and Wonhyo. In particular the work of Gyunyeo (均如 923–973) prepared for the reconciliation of Hwaeom and Seon, with Hwaeom's accommodating attitude toward the latter. Gyunyeo's works are an important source for modern scholarship in identifying the distinctive nature of Korean Hwaeom.

Another important advocate of Seon/Gyo unity was Uicheon. Like most other early Goryeo monks, he began his studies in Buddhism with Hwaeom. He later traveled to China, and upon his return, actively promulgated the Cheontae (traditional Chinese: 天台宗 pinyin: Tiantai), which became recognized as another Seon school. This period thus came to be described as "five doctrinal and two meditational schools". Uicheon himself, however, alienated too many Seon adherents, and he died at a relatively young age without seeing a Seon-Gyo unity accomplished.

Jinul Edit

The most important figure of Seon in the Goryeo was Jinul. In his time, the sangha was in a crisis of external appearance and internal issues of doctrine. Buddhism had gradually become involved with secular affairs, incorporating practices such as fortune-telling and offering of prayers and rituals for success in secular endeavors. Inclination toward these practices resulted in the profusion of an increasingly larger number of monks and nuns with questionable motivations. The correction, revival, and improvement of the quality of Buddhism became prominent issues for Buddhist leaders of the period.

Jinul sought to establish a new movement within Seon which he called the "samādhi and prajñā society" (traditional Chinese: 定慧社 Korean: Jeonghyesa) whose goal was to establish a new community of disciplined, pure-minded practitioners deep in the mountains. He eventually accomplished this mission with the founding of Songgwangsa at Mt. Jogye (曹溪山). Jinul's works are characterized by a thorough analysis and reformulation of the methodologies of Seon study and practice.

One major issue that had long fermented in Chan, and which received special focus from Jinul, was the relationship between "gradual" and "sudden" methods in practice and enlightenment. Drawing upon various Chinese treatments of this topic, most importantly those by Huayan Patriarch Guifeng Zongmi (780–841) and Linji master Dahui Zonggao (大慧 1089–1163), Jinul created a "sudden enlightenment followed by gradual practice" dictum that he outlined in a few relatively concise and accessible texts. From Dahui Zonggao, Jinul also incorporated the hwadu method into his practice. This form of meditation is the main method taught in Seon today.

Jinul's philosophical resolution of the Seon-Gyo conflict brought a deep and lasting effect on Korean Buddhism.

Late Goryeo Edit

The general trend of Buddhism in the latter half of the Goryeo was a decline due to corruption, and the rise of strong anti-Buddhist political and philosophical sentiment. However, this period of relative decadence would nevertheless produce some of Korea's most renowned Seon masters. Three important monks of this period who figured prominently in charting the future course of Korean Seon were contemporaries and friends: Gyeonghan Baeg'un (景閑白雲 1298–1374), Taego Bou (太古普愚 1301–1382) and Naong Hyegeun (懶翁慧勤 1320–1376). All three went to Yuan China to learn the hwadu practice of the Linji school (traditional Chinese: 臨濟 Korean: Imje) that had been popularized by Jinul. All three returned and established the sharp, confrontational methods of the Imje school in their own teaching. Each of the three was also said to have had hundreds of disciples, such that this new infusion into Korean Seon brought about a considerable effect.

Despite the Imje influence, which was generally considered to be anti-scholarly in nature, Gyeonghan and Naong, under the influence of Jinul and the traditional tongbulgyo tendency, showed an unusual interest in scriptural study, as well as a strong understanding of Confucianism y Taoísmo, due to the increasing influence of Chinese philosophy as the foundation of official education. From this time, a marked tendency for Korean Buddhist monks to be "three teachings" exponents appeared.

A significant historical event of the Goryeo period is the production of the first woodblock edition of the Tripiṭaka called the Tripitaka Koreana. Two editions were made, the first one completed from 1210 to 1231, and the second one from 1214 to 1259. The first edition was destroyed in a fire, during an attack by the Mongols in 1232, but the second edition is still in existence at Haeinsa in Gyeongsang. This edition of the Tripitaka was of high quality, and served as the standard version of the Tripitaka in East Asia for almost 700 years.

In 1388, an influential general named Yi Seonggye (1335–1408) carried out a golpe de Estado and established himself as the first ruler of the Joseon dynasty in 1392 with the support of this Neo-Confucian movement. He was posthumously renamed Emperor Taejo of Joseon in 1899. Joseon Buddhism, which had started off under the so-called "five doctrinal and two meditational" schools system of the Goryeo, was first condensed to two schools: Seon and Gyo. Eventually, these were further reduced to the single school of Seon.

Despite this strong suppression from the government, and vehement ideological opposition from Korean Neo-Confucianism, Seon Buddhism continued to thrive intellectually. An outstanding thinker was Gihwa (己和 (Hamheo Deuktong 涵虚得通) 1376–1433), who had first studied at a Confucian academy, but then changed his focus to Buddhism, where he was initiated to the gwanhwa tradition by Muhak Jacho (無學自超 1327–1405). He wrote many scholarly commentaries, as well as essays and a large body of poetry. Being well-versed in Confucian and Taoist philosophies, Giwha also wrote an important treatise in defense of Buddhism, from the standpoint of the intrinsic unity of the three teachings, entitled the Hyeonjeong non. In the tradition of earlier philosophers, he applied che-yong ("essence-function") and Hwaeom (sa-sa mu-ae, "mutual interpenetration of phenomena").

Common in the works of Joseon scholar-monks are writings on Hwaeom-related texts, as well as the Awakening of Faith in the Mahayana, Sutra of Perfect Enlightenment, Śūraṅgama Sūtra, Sutra del diamante y el Heart Sutra. The Jogye order instituted a set curriculum of scriptural study, including the above-mentioned works, along with other shorter selections from eminent Korean monks, such as Jinul.

During the Joseon period, the number of Buddhist monasteries dropped from several hundred to a mere thirty-six. Limits were placed on the number of clergy, land area, and ages for entering the sangha. When the final restrictions were in place, monks and nuns were prohibited from entering the cities. Buddhist funerals, and even begging, were outlawed. However, some rulers occasionally appeared who looked favorably upon Buddhism and did away with some of the more suppressive regulations. The most noteworthy of these was the Queen Munjeong, who, as a devout Buddhist, took control of the government in the stead of her young son Myeongjong (r. 1545–67), and immediately repealed many anti-Buddhist measures. The queen had deep respect for the brilliant monk Bou (보우, 普雨 1515–1565), and installed him as the head of the Seon school.

One of the most important reasons for the restoration of Buddhism to a position of minimal acceptance was the role of Buddhist monks in repelling the Japanese invasions of Korea, which occurred between 1592 and 1598. At that time, the government was weak from internal squabbles, and was not initially able to muster strong resistance to the incursion. The plight of the country encouraged some leaders of the sangha to organize monks into guerrilla units, which enjoyed some instrumental successes. The "righteous monk" (義士 uisa) movement spread during this eight-year war, finally including several thousand monks, led by the aging Seosan Hyujeong (서산대사, 西山休靜 1520–1604), a first-rate Seon master and the author of a number of important religious texts. The presence of the monks' army was a critical factor in the eventual expulsion of the Japanese invaders.

Seosan is also known for continuing efforts toward the unification of Buddhist doctrinal study and practice. His efforts were strongly influenced by Wonhyo, Jinul, and Gihwa. He is considered the central figure in the revival of Joseon Buddhism, and most major streams of modern Korean Seon trace their lineages back to him through one of his four main disciples: Yu Jeong (1544–1610) Eongi (1581–1644), Taeneung (1562–1649) and Ilseon (1533–1608), all four of whom were lieutenants to Seosan during the war with Japan.

The biographies of Seosan and his four major disciples are similar in many respects, and these similarities are emblematic of the typical lifestyle of Seon monks of the late Goryeo and Joseon periods. Most of them began by engaging in Confucian and Daoist studies. Turning to Seon, they pursued a markedly itinerant lifestyle, wandering through the mountain monasteries. At this stage, they were initiated to the central component of Seon practice, the gong'an, o gwanhwa meditation. Esta gwanhwa meditation, unlike Zen traditions, did not consist of contemplation on a lengthy, graduated series of kōans. In contrast, the typical Korean approach was that "all gong'an are contained in one" and therefore it was, and still is, quite common for the practitioner to remain with one hwadu during his whole meditational career, most often Zhaozhou Congshen's "mu."

Buddhism during the three centuries, from the time of Seosan down to the next Japanese incursion into Korea in the late nineteenth century, remained fairly consistent with the above-described model. A number of eminent teachers appeared during the centuries after Seosan, but the Buddhism of the late Joseon, while keeping most of the common earlier characteristics, was especially marked by a revival of Hwaeom studies, and occasionally by new interpretations of methodology in Seon study. There was also a revival, during the final two centuries, of Pure Land Buddhism. Although the government maintained fairly tight control of the sangha, there was never again the extreme suppression of the early Joseon.

During Japan's Meiji Restoration in the 1870s, the government abolished celibacy for Buddhist monks and nuns. Japanese Buddhists won the right to proselytize inside cities, ending a five-hundred year ban on clergy members entering cities. Jōdo Shinshū and Nichiren schools began sending missionaries to Korea and new sects formed in Korea such as Won Buddhism. [18]

After the Japan–Korea Treaty of 1910, when Japan annexed Korea, Korean Buddhism underwent many changes. The Temple Ordinance of 1911 (Korean: 사찰령 Hanja: 寺刹令 ) changed the traditional system whereby temples were run as a collective enterprise by the Sangha, replacing this system with Japanese-style management practices in which temple abbots appointed by the Governor-General of Korea were given private ownership of temple property and given the rights of inheritance to such property. [19] More importantly, monks from pro-Japanese factions began to adopt Japanese practices, by marrying and having children. [19]

In 1920, the Temple Ordinance was revised to reorganize temple administration and allow the Japanese government to directly oversee the 31 main temples in the country, with new headquarters at Kakwangsa (now Jogyesa). [20] During the Second Sino-Japanese War, Korean Buddhism was placed under greater control. [20] Japanese authorities had many temples' artworks shipped to Japan. Negotiations for the repatriation of these artworks are still ongoing today.

When Korea was liberated by the surrender of Japan in 1945, the celibate monastics of what has become the largest sect of Korean Buddhism in terms of adherents and the number of clergy, the Jogye Order, began to take over for the married priests who ran the temples during the occupation. [21] This order sees itself as the primary representative of traditional Korean Buddhism in existence. The Taego Order is the second largest order of Korean Buddhism and includes both celibate and married monks (nuns are expected to remain celibate). This is the only order that maintains the full Korean Buddhist ritual tradition. [ dudoso - discutir ]

Current situation Edit

The Seon school, which is dominated by the Jogye Order in terms of the number of clergy and adherents, practices disciplined traditional Seon practice at a number of major mountain monasteries in Korea, often under the direction of highly regarded masters. The Taego Order, though it has more temples than the Jogye Order, is second in size in terms of the number of clergy and adherents and, in addition to Seon meditation, keeps traditional Buddhist arts alive, such as Yeongsanjae and other ritual dance.

Modern Seon practice is not far removed in its content from the original practice of Jinul, who introduced the integrated combination of the practice of Gwanhwa meditation and the study of selected Buddhist texts. The Korean monastic life is markedly itinerant for monks and nuns pursuing Seon meditation training: while each monk or nun has a "home" monastery, he or she will regularly travel throughout the mountains, staying as long as he or she wishes, studying and teaching in the style of the temple that is housing them. The Korean monastic training system has seen a steadily increasing influx of Western practitioner-aspirants in the second half of the twentieth century. The vast majority of Korean monks and nuns do not spend 20 or 30 years in the mountains pursuing Seon training in a form recognizable to westerners. Most Korean monks and nuns receive a traditional academic education in addition to ritual training, which is not necessarily in a formal ritual training program. Those who do spend time in meditation in the mountains may do so for a few years and then essentially return to the life of a parish priest.

Currently, Korean Buddhism is in a state of slow transition. While the reigning theory behind Korean Buddhism was based on Jinul's "sudden enlightenment, gradual cultivation," the modern Korean Seon master, Seongcheol's revival of Hui Neng's "sudden enlightenment, sudden cultivation" has taken Korean Buddhism by storm. Although there is resistance to change within the ranks of the Jogye order, with the last three Supreme Patriarchs' stance that is in accordance with Seongcheol, there has been a gradual change in the atmosphere of Korean Buddhism.

North Korea Edit

The regime in North Korea actively discourages the practice of religion, including Buddhism. Currently, the country claims to have about 10,000 active adherents of Buddhism. As with other religions in the country, Buddhism came under the close scrutiny of the country's government [22] –including worship at Buddhist temples by monks, through the state-sponsored Korea Buddhist Federation. [23] A major temple is Pohyonsa which was preserved by Kim Il-Sung.

Nevertheless, Buddhists in North Korea reportedly fared better than other religious groups–particularly Christians, who were said to often face persecution by the authorities, and Buddhists were given limited funding by the government to promote the religion, given that Buddhism played an integral role in traditional Korean culture. [24]

South Korea Edit

Starting in the 1950s, Syngman Rhee and others worked to further divide and weaken the Buddhist Sangha in the country. Rhee campaigned in 1954 against the so-called "Japanized Buddhists". Western education and scholarship, and the empowerment of women and the poor, caused divisions among Koreans. Specifically, a deep rift opened between married priests and celibate monks, a carryover from Japanese Buddhism's influence during the occupation period, though there had been calls for an end to celibacy from some Korean monks before Japan's annexation of the Korean peninsula. The differences were so great that fistfights over the control of temples became frequent. Monks, mostly belonging to the celibate Jogye order, threatened to kill themselves. Many of them were against the married clergy. As the Buddhist riots continued, the influence of Buddhism lessened. Buddhism continued to lose followers to Christian missionaries, who were able to capitalize on these weaknesses.

From the 1960s onward, Buddhism has grown considerably, through the formation of independent lay associations (that is, not funded or affiliated to the main orders), with many focused on youths, particularly to propagate and evangelize Buddhist teachings, fellowship and spiritual development, based on the Protestant model. [25] These adaptations have modernized Buddhism in South Korea. [25] Moreover, the South Korean government began devoting substantial funds to restore and reconstruct historic Buddhist temples, helping to revive Buddhism in the country. [18] President Park Chung-hee unsuccessfully attempted during his rule (1961–1979) to settle the dispute by building a pan-national Buddhist organization. However, he did succeed in allying himself with the celibate faction, the Jogye Order.

It was in 1970 that Korean Buddhism split into a fully celibate order which retained the name "Jogye" and the Taego order that includes both celibate and married clergy. The Taego order retained the traditional red kasa whereas the Jogye order changed their kasa to brown to visually differentiate the two orders. Both orders continue to use the Dharmaguptaka Pratimoksha, the lineage of vows for monks and nuns taken in China and Vietnam, though Taego monks have the option of returning the vow of celibacy. When the Jogye order was founded, the government only recognized a small group of celibate Seon practitioners as "legitimate," thus all of the ritual specialists remained with the Taego order.

In the 1980s, President Chun Doo-hwan, a Presbyterian, adopted anti-Buddhist policies and attempted to restrict Buddhist activities. [20] During his administration, many historic temples were converted into tourist resorts, which deprived temples of their autonomy, as these "national parks" were government-run. [20] Consequently, Buddhists, especially the Jogye Order, were highly critical of these measures. From 27 to 31 October 1980, during the Kyeongsin Persecution, the government raided major Buddhist temples throughout the country, including the headquarters at Seoul's Jogyesa, under the guise of anti-government investigations and an attempt to "purify" Buddhism. [20] [26] 55 monks were arrested and many others were interrogated and tortured, including the abbot of Naksansa, who died from the abuses. [26] None of the investigated monks were ever charged, although many were sent to reeducation camps. Throughout the 1980s, the Buddhist community was kept under strict surveillance of government agents and many were prosecuted under false charges of supporting Communists or conspiracy. [20]

To Buddhists, the construct of a state-protecting Buddhism (호국불교 or 護國佛敎, Hoguk Bulgyo) had vanished, which served to radicalize a generation of Buddhists, including monks and laity and propelled them to start a movement called Minjung Buddhism (민중불교 or 民衆佛敎, "practical Buddhism" or "Buddhism for the masses"). [26] This modernization emphasized ordinary people and was a reaction to aggressive Christian proselytization in Korea. [18]

From the mid-1980s to date, Buddhism has expanded by through media and education. There are two major Buddhist media networks in South Korea, the Buddhist Broadcasting System (BBS), founded in 1990 and the Buddhist Cable TV Network, founded in 1995. [25] Buddhist orders are also affiliated with or operate 3 universities, 26 schools and 16 seminaries in the country. [25] The Kwan Um School of Zen is one of South Korea's most successful international missionary institutions. [27]

During the 1990s, conflicts between the South Korean government and Buddhist leaders, as well as with fundamentalist Protestant denominations, continued. The government accused Buddhism of immorality [ cita necesaria ] and many Protestants used this to forward their missionary work. Some religious gatherings have even turned violent, vandalizing statues of Buddha and Dangun, the mythical founder of Korea. Soon after the Buddhist Broadcasting Service's FM radio station was launched in 1990, young men vandalized and destroyed sound facilities worth $200,000 USD. [19]

There was also a rash of temple burnings in the 1980s and 1990s, and attacks on Buddhist artwork have continued. In one instance, a Protestant minister used a microphone on a cord as a bolo weapon and smashed temple paintings and a statue. In other instances, red crosses have been painted on temple walls, murals, and statues. Buddha statues have also been decapitated. Furthermore, students at Buddhist universities report aggressive attempts to convert them on campus, especially near campus temples. [28]

Sectarian tensions between fundamentalist Protestants and Buddhists occasionally surface due to what has been seen as a tendency of government officials–many of whom are Christians, especially of Protestant denominations–to tilt the political balance in favour of Christians over Buddhists which has led to discontent within the Buddhist community. [29]

Of particular note was the ascension of Lee Myung-bak to the South Korean presidency when the high proportion of Christians in relation to Buddhists in the public sector became known–particularly the president's cabinet, where there were 12 Christians to only one Buddhist. [30] among other reported incidences. [31]

Recently, the South Korean public has become increasingly critical of Protestant churches and leaders due to their support for aggressive missionary tactics. This has led many Protestants leaving their churches and converting to Buddhism. [32]

The growing discontent with Protestant Christianity in South Korea has contributed to a spiritual and cultural revival of Buddhism in South Korea, with the number of followers increasing in recent years. [33]

Antagonism from Korean Protestantism Edit

Fundamentalist Protestant antagonism against Buddhism has increased in recent years. Acts of vandalism against Buddhist amenities and instances of fundamentalist Christians praying for the destruction of all Buddhist temples and monasteries [34] have all drawn attention to this persistent hostility against Buddhism from Korean Protestants. South Korean Buddhists have denounced what they view as discriminatory measures against them and their religion by the administration of President Lee Myung-bak, which they attribute to Lee being a Protestant. [35] [36] The Buddhist Jogye Order has accused the Lee government of discriminating against Buddhism by ignoring Buddhist temples in certain public documents. [35] [36] In 2006, according to the Asia Times, "Lee also sent a video prayer message to a Christian rally held in the southern city of Busan in which the worship leader prayed feverishly: 'Lord, let the Buddhist temples in this country crumble down!'" [37] Further, according to an article in Buddhist-Christian Studies: "Over the course of the last decade a fairly large number of Buddhist temples in South Korea have been destroyed or damaged by fire by misguided Protestant fundamentalists. More recently, Buddhist statues have been identified as idols, attacked and decapitated. Arrests are hard to effect, as the arsonists and vandals work by stealth of night." [38] A 2008 incident in which police investigated protesters who had been given sanctuary in the Jogye temple in Seoul and searched a car driven by Jigwan, then the executive chief of the Jogye order, led to protests by some claiming police had treated Jigwan as a criminal. [35]

In October 2010, students from Church Equipping Worship School posted a clip on YouTube [39] professing a hope that God would destroy a Buddhist temple in Seoul. [39] Later they claimed being taught such by God.

"This place (Bongeunsa Temple) will be demolished and God will win it back….Useless idols (Buddha’s statue) here made me really sad,” the student said in the clip. [39]

Following public outrages sparked by the video, pastor Choi Ji-ho and students from the school went to Bongeunsa Temple to apologize for the comments made by the student. [39]

The presidency of Park Geun-hye intended to address Protestant Christian antagonism against Buddhists in South Korea, due to increasing calls for religious cooperation in the country by the general public. [40] During the first year of the Park administration, a national message was delivered for the celebration of Buddha's Birthday, a contrast from the former Lee Myung-bak adminstration which was criticised for it's role in the suppression of Buddhist influence in South Korea. [41]


Ver el vídeo: Conquista al enemigo sin atacarlo - Enseñanza del Budismo Zen


Comentarios:

  1. Zolozuru

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  2. Ethelbert

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  3. Ascot

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  4. Meinrad

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  5. Kazrajar

    Felicitaciones, qué gran mensaje.

  6. Gardami

    Lo siento, no puedo ayudarte en nada. Pero estoy seguro de que encontrará la solución adecuada. No se desesperen.



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